Literature Review

To understand people's mindset & what challenges are they facing in better before bed experience?

To initiate our discovery research, we commenced with a comprehensive literature review, analyzing 20 articles pertaining to unhealthy smartphone usage both before and during bedtime.

01 | Build a sensible and healthy relationship with technology
Unhealthy smartphone usage before and while in bed can disrupt our natural sleep-wake cycle, resulting in poor sleep quality
02 | Stress and emotional situations by using phones
Habitual use of smartphones, which is associated with a lower sense of meaning and loss of autonomy, can also interfere with sleep quality

Design objectives

Employ an engaging design intervention that benefits students

Our motivation stemmed from the fact that existing approaches, such as a lockout intervention or iPhone Night Shift, focused on enhancing either smartphone experience or sleep quality. Additionally, these approaches offered little intrinsic motivation for individuals to actively adopt better smartphone and sleep habits.‍

Semi-structured Interviews

Minimizing negative impact for better bedtime experience instead of escaping

Based on insights gathered from the interviews, it becomes evident that completely locking out phones may not be a viable option. Instead, the focus should be on fostering a healthier relationship with technology to minimize its negative impact on bedtime experiences.

Diary Study

Identify and self-evaluate pre-bed smartphone usage patterns

We conducted a one-week diary study with a combination of feedback and elicitation diaries. We chose this method to gain a comprehensive understanding of students' smartphone usage patterns and pre-bed routines.

Key Takeaways

We found that students struggle to find balance in relax and stress

For data analysis, we reviewed all the paper diaries and online responses. We systematically analyzed the data by identifying common themes and patterns from the participant's entries.

Understanding User

Who are we designing for?

In this case, we concluded major insights into goal-oriented personas.

Overall Finding Reports

Current before-bed experience with smartphones may disrupt sleep patterns and negatively affect mental and physical health. Through research study, we found that college students struggle to establish healthy relationships with technology before bedtime. Social media and videos will make students lose track of time, while games will be "mentally stimulating." Β To address the needs of people in challenges related to healthy bedtime habits, we designed a smartphone application that incorporates principles of gamification, social support, and goal-setting theory. We hope that the approaches we promote will encourage more college students to be mindful of their use of smart products before bedtime, and that our findings will help future researchers investigate the relationship between college students' smart product use and sleep patterns.

Access Research Report Paper


The Product Goal

We want to help students build a sensible and healthier relationship with technology

Low-fid Ideas

During a sketch session, we created sketches to address the lack of engagement issue in the app.

Co-design Workshop

Design a better and more personalized pre-bed experience

We conducted co-design workshop, an interactive design method that involves end-users in the design process, was used to promote a user-centered approach and foster ownership among stakeholders.


We used the co-design workshop with brainstorming to encourage as many novel ideas as possible. Participants sketched the redesign on a whiteboard as it provided a more engaging and collaborative experience for the co-design process.


Design Principles

To keep our design for better experience, fortify the foundation and guide us what's good for our users.

Design System

We chose Roboto as the main text for its with its clean and legible characteristics, promotes readability and reduces eye strain. Recognizing the significance of darkness in sleep experience, the design system seamlessly incorporates dark themes to reduce the emission of bright light from screens, minimizing sleep disruption and preserving users' natural circadian rhythms.

Final Experience

Daily Challenges

Selecting the challenges that are most relevant to their goals and track their progress over time.

The app provides users with challenges related to healthy bedtime habits, such as limiting app usage time, practicing mindfulness or relaxation techniques, and establishing morning routines.

Social Connections

Facilitating social interaction before bed to create a personalized pre-bed routine.

Recognizing the importance of social connections, the app includes features that facilitate social interaction before bed, such as scheduling phone calls with friends or family, sharing progress with a supportive community, and sending encouraging messages to friends.


Developing game-like features such as goal-setting, rewards, and progress tracking.

To make pre-bed routines more engaging, the app includes game-like features. Users can earn badges and points for completing activities and compete with friends to stay motivated.

All Hi-Fi Prototypes

User testing

In our testing, we recruited participants to evaluate our revised prototypes. Overall, the results of our evaluation showed that our design was effective in improving sleep quality and duration, and the feedback from users was positive.


What's Next?

Our design provides many options for users to improve their pre-bed experience using their preferred ways, and we are able to validate that the current features would at least benefit every participant in our diary studies and co-design workshops, as well as ourselves.

Some Potentials Issues are that ...
01 | Require User Input 🌟
Personalization is easier said than done, as it requires user input to ensure that it is done correctly.
02 | Different Time Zone πŸ’‘
We decided not to incorporate it in our current version of final design to avoid confusion.
03 | Faking TasksπŸ“‹
Having users submit photos can raise ethical considerations such as privacy concerns.

What I Learn

Accessible design for different user groups
Such a challenging issues requires a solution which has a universal design and comprises accessibility need for all. During the design, we created a simple user experience but we aim to continue to enhance user sleep experience.

Strategic Approach for qualitative user research methods
It was interesting to plan dairy study and co-design workshop as specially qualitative user research methods to gather more in-depth understanding of user insights. Strategic planning and setting timed individuals goals is essential to collaborate during multiple user research methods.